(3d printed house technology, what is 3d printed housing, 3d printed house cons, 3d printing house how it works, 3d printed houses material)
Serial 3D printing of buildings is becoming a reality in the rapidly developing
construction industry, and in this article, we will show what is 3d printed housing? The article presents different photos of the 3D printing of houses from manufacturers’ websites and other sources, a description of construction printing technologies, and information involved in it.
what is 3D 3d printed house technology?
The principle of operation is to extrude (extrude) concrete, layer by layer, according to a given three-dimensional computer model. With the help of a complex for preparing and supplying a building mixture, concrete is mixed with water and other additives and pumped into a hose. The hose is connected to the printer head. Under the pressure of the pump, the concrete is fed to the printer head, the mixture exits the printer nozzle and is applied to the surface of the site or the previously printed layers.
Types of construction 3D printers
To build a building, you need a ready-made 3D model, quick-hardening concrete, and a construction site, which is enough to level with standard construction equipment. Most of the 3D printers print according to the same principle – by layering the concrete mixture extruded from the extruder nozzle. There are exceptions, such as D-Shape printers, which print by layering powder material and then bonding across the entire width of the machine.
Construction 3D printers are diverse – they are machines with a polar scheme of work (rotating 3D printers), and delta printers, and based on robotic arms. Concrete mixtures suitable for extrusion today allow printing elements of varying complexity and size – from small architectural forms, such as flower beds and benches, to entire buildings, bridges, and even skyscrapers, which is why printers differ not only in design but also in scale. There are several types of construction printers:
XYZ printers (portal)
The equipment is a frame along which the head moves along the XY axes. Three portals are usually used to hang the print head. The portals are moved by stepper motors providing the highest precision. They are designed to print buildings in parts – in the shop; and for printing interior walls, when installing the printer inside a building under construction. Small buildings that fit entirely under the arch of the printer are printed entirely in one go.
Delta printers, unlike gantry machines, do not rely on 3D guides and can print more complex shapes. Here the print head is suspended on thin arms that are attached to vertical rails.
Technical features make D-Shape a separate class of construction printers – it prints not with a solution, but with dry powder material, each layer of which is laid down to the desired thickness and compacted, and then impregnated with a binder from the printer’s nozzles. The finished part is cleaned of excess raw materials.
Construction mixtures or 3d printed house material
The main material for printing is concrete.
Construction printing concrete must be suitable for extrusion through the print head. This is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. The difficulty is that the concrete must be laid in regular, even layers without spreading, and set quickly enough to retain its shape, but not too quickly – the superimposed layers must remain chemically active in order to form a single structure at the point of contact. Reducing the setting rate is also important for maintaining the performance of the equipment – the nozzle should not be clogged with hardening concrete.
For printing, fine-grained mixtures are used, which differ from traditional concrete. Each company develops its own formulation, which corresponds to the device of the printer and its nozzle, as well as the specifics of the target products. The most important concrete parameters for a 3D printer are strength, strength gain rate, and plasticity. The required strength of concrete is selected by regulating the composition of the mixture – the amount of cement and the quality of aggregates, as well as the addition of plasticizers. Plasticizing agents significantly increase the mobility of the mixture and reduce the water-cement ratio, which increases the strength of concrete. Examples AMT
3d printed house technology advantages
Cost: Low. The first printed Russian house cost only 593,568 rubles. This price includes finishing and communications. Now, for approximately the same money, it is possible to build only a frame-panel house, or from a bar, without finishing and communications. The cost of 3D-printed buildings in the near future, with the spread of technology, is expected to be lower than it is now.
Cleanliness: During the construction process, construction waste is not generated, requiring removal from the construction site and disposal. Traditional construction leaves behind tons of waste – scraps of materials, pieces of concrete, scaffolding, and contaminated formwork. 3D printing of buildings leaves much less waste and, moreover, can use recycled waste as part of the concrete mix.
Personnel: Reducing the number of personnel involved in construction leads to a decrease in labor costs: 50-80% fewer man-hours are spent on the construction of 3D printed objects because people only need to operate machines, carry out communications and assemble structures.
Time: Reduced construction time. When building on a finished foundation, the erection of walls can take place in a matter of days. The most time-consuming part is the construction of the roof, communications, and interior decoration. For comparison: panel houses, the fastest of the traditional ones, are installed by leading manufacturers within a month.
Simplicity: The technology can significantly reduce the cost of building buildings with unique architecture. The capabilities of a 3D printer are not limited to straight lines. Almost any geometric shape is available to developers, and the construction of unusual objects takes not much more time than the construction of traditional houses.
Savings: Some types of materials, logistics, and labor costs are excluded from the construction process. These include, for example, formwork and concrete slabs. 3D printing of buildings directly on the foundation solves this problem.
3d printed house technology cons
The high price of a 3D printer. It can reach 2.5 million dollars. For small organizations and temporary projects, this cost can be prohibitive. The problem is solved by renting equipment, as in China, where WINSUN rents construction 3D printers, or by ordering printing from a specialized company, as in Russia – Spetsavia not only produces construction 3D printers, but also has a division that prints to order. You can also purchase a construction 3D printer on lease.
There are no common standards, interchangeability of consumables. This is most likely a temporary issue.
Fittings, communications and ceilings are still being installed manually. A layered wall surface that requires finishing, if even walls are required – leveling, plastering or the use of facing materials.
Sensitivity to external conditions. Do not print under adverse weather conditions. In cold weather, a dome is usually installed around the construction site to maintain the level of temperature and humidity, protect from precipitation and wind. This requires separate cost
The spread of 3D printing in construction is only a matter of time. Technology makes it possible to quickly and cost-effectively build houses. This can be true in countries with large populations and housing shortages, such as India and China, as well as in third world countries where people are forced to live in barracks built from scrap materials. Construction 3D printing can be used in disaster areas – it will be possible to build houses and temporary shelters in a matter of days.
The next step will be the use of fully automated processes, where robots do all the work without human intervention – they build walls, reinforce them, erect roofs, carry out communications, equip houses with stairs and windows, and do exterior and interior decoration. Progress in the development of concrete mixtures will allow not only to select ready-made compositions for specific conditions and tasks, but also to use construction waste and local materials as raw materials –
hay, soil, sand and so on, you only need a binder. The use of mineral additives in concrete solutions will also help support the planet’s ecology – reduced cement consumption will help reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.